Mexican History Review
Mexican history is very exiting, dynamic and interesting filled with intrigue, mystique, rises and falls of the empires and entire civilizations.
For thousands of years complex civilizations of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (Olmec, Zapotec, Maya, Toltec, Aztec and other) flourished. These cultures were very developed for that time (2000 B.C 1519 A.D).
They were very good in mathematics, geometry and engineering. The testimonies of this are Maya's and Aztec's pyramids that are still standing tall in present Mexico. These civilizations built entire cities and in fact the capitol of Aztec´'s empire (present Mexico City) was the largest city in the world at that time.
Aztecs had good and advanced military which helped them rule the Mesoamerica. They were also very religious and worshiped many gods to whom they were offering human sacrifice very often and at times in very large numbers.
Unfortunately for Aztecs their military was no mach for Spanish army and even more importantly their strong religious beliefs caused them to have many enemies among indigenous Indians who joined Spanish Conquistadores against the Aztecs. Important thing to know is that without the support of the other Nahuatl nations Spanish would have had little chance to concur the Aztec empire.
However, little did those other Nahuatl nations know that by joining the Spanish and destroying the biggest military power of Mesoamerica, which Aztec Empire was, they sentenced themselves to death, slavery and nearly extermination by their very allies the Spanish.
Colonial period lasted from 1521 to 1810 and during that time Mexico was known as New Spain. The arrival of Spanish is very important turn point in Mexican History.
Most of Indian population was converted to Catholicism; many of them perished due to the diseases and killing, and many Spanish, Portuguese and other European settlers came to Mexico. These events completely changed the demographic image of Mexico which in return caused dramatic changes in all aspects of Mexican culture.
Mexican War of Independence
On September 16th 1810 father Miguel Hidalgo declared Mexico's independence from Spain which was the beginning of the Mexican war for independence that lasted for over 10 years.
In 1821 Spain officially recognized Mexico's independence and the first Mexican Empire was created under the rule of Agustin de Iturbide who was the former Spanish general that switched sides and to fight for Mexicans.
This first Mexican Empire and the rule of a self-proclaimed emperor didn't last. Mexican rebelled against him and in the 1823 and the first Mexican Republic was established.
Mexican American War
One of the biggest mistakes of Mexican Government in the entire Mexican history is the decision to go to war against the United Stated over the boundaries disagreements. Mexican American war lasted for 2 years (1846 to 1848); Mexico lost the war and more than a half of its territory.
The territories that Mexico lost are present Texas, California, Wyoming, Idaho, Oklahoma, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. Now you can comprehend how significant mistake was made my Mexican Government to declare war to the United States.
Second Mexican Empire
In the 1860 only 12 years after the American occupation of Mexico ended, the Mexican Republic was occupied by France. French abolished Mexican Republic and established Second Mexican Empire under the rule of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.
The second Mexican Empire lasted longer than the first one but in the 1867 Maximilian was captured and executed which marked an end to the Second Mexican Empire, the restoration of the Mexican Republic and many political and social reforms.
The Mexican Revolution
The period of Mexican revolution (1910 - 1921) was one of the most turbulent periods in Mexican history. During Mexican revolution the dictator Diaz was overthrown; many prominent and passionate leaders emerged such as presidents Francisco I Madero and Venustiano Carranza, revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Vila and others.
Unfortunately they were all assassinated between 1913 and 1923. However they didn't die in vain because Mexico would never be the same after the revolution. Great example of this is the Mexican Constitution of 1917 that brought many positive changes to Mexican people.